Wednesday, 29 May 2013

Islamic Sects

Islamic Sects History

Source(google.com.pk)
Geographer and historian Al-Muqaddasi once satirically described the adherents of these schools as possessing contrasting personal qualities: Hanafites, conscious of being hired in official positions, appeared deft, well-informed, devout and prudent; the Malikite dull, obtuse and confining himself to observance of Muslim prophetic tradition; the Shafi'ite shrewd, impatient, understanding and quick-tempered; the Zahirite haughty, irritable, loquacious and well-to-do; the Mu'tazilite elegant, erudite, free-thinking and ironic; the Shi'ite entrenched in his old rancor, intractable and enjoys riches and fame; the Hanbalite anxious to practice what he preaches, charitable and inspiring; the Karamite pious, partisan, avicarous and predatory; the litterateur frivolous, vain, clever and pompous; and the reciter of the Qur'an greedy, vanglorious, hypocritical and -effeminate.[1] While such descriptions were most assuredly humorous in nature, differences did and still do exist.
Early Scholars [edit]

The Quran sets the rights, the responsibilities and the rules for people and for societies to adhere to, for instance, not dealing in interest. Muhammand then provided an example, which is recorded in the hadith books, showing people how he practically implement these rules in a society. After the passing of Muhammad, there was a need for jurists, to decide on new legal matters where there is no such ruling in the Quran or the Hadith, example of Islamic prophet Muhammad regarding a similar case.[2][3] In the years proceeding Muhammad, Imam Jafar al-Sadiq whose views many Shias follow and Imam Abu Hanifa and Malik ibn Anas whose views most Sunnis follow worked together in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi in Medina. Along with Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, Muhammad al-Baqir, Zayd ibn Ali and over 70 other leading jurists and scholars.
All the Muslims follow the Quran and the example of Muhammad. The differences between the denominations in Islam are primarily political. The Sunnis give more importance to the Quran and the books containing the hadith, examples of Muhammad, but since all the early scholars and all the four caliphs worked together, the Sunnis accept all the first four caliphs, as they were elected by the community. They also accept all the early imams (scholars) for their knowledge. While the Shias who constitute around 10-20% of the Muslims are more hereditary and only accept Ali the fourth caliph and only accept the male descendent of Ali through his son Hussein as imams. But different branches of Shia accept different brothers.
All these scholars were taught by Muhammads companions, many of whom settled in Madina.
Muwatta[4] by Malik ibn Anas was written as a consensus of the opinion, of these scholars.[5][6][7] The Muwatta[4] by Malik ibn Anas quotes 13 hadiths from Imam Jafar al-Sadiq.[8]
Much of the knowledge we have about Muhammand is narrated through Aisha the wife of Muhammad, also a renowned scholar of her time. Aisha raised and taught her nephew Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr.
Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakrs mother was from Alis family and Qasims daughter Farwah bint al-Qasim was married to Muhammad al-Baqir and was the mother of Jafar al-Sadiq. Therefore Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr was the grand son of Abu Bakr the first caliph and the grand father of Jafar al-Sadiq whose views the twelver Shias follow. The twelver Shia do not accept Abu Bakr as the first caliph but do accept his great grand son Jafar al-Sadiq.
Aishas also taught her nephew Urwah ibn Zubayr. He then taught his son Hisham ibn Urwah, who was the main teacher of Malik ibn Anas whose views many Sunni follow and also taught Jafar al-Sadiq. Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, Hisham ibn Urwah and Muhammad al-Baqir taught Zayd ibn Ali, Jafar al-Sadiq, Abu Hanifa, and Malik ibn Anas.
Al-Shafi‘i was taught by Malik ibn Anas. Ahmad ibn Hanbal was taught by Al-Shafi‘i. Muhammad al-Bukhari travelled every where collecting hadith and his father Ismail ibn Ibrahim was a student of Malik ibn Anas[9][10][11][12][13][14]


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